Pages
Download article

Oceanic anoxic events of the Cretaceous period and their role in the formation of source rocks in the basins of continental margins

A.I. Konyukhov

Original article

DOI http://doi.org/10.18599/grs.19.6

43-55
rus.

open access

Under a Creative Commons license

The Cretaceous period was marked not only by the dominance of warm climate, vast transgressions of the sea and widespread occurrence of carbonate deposits, but also by the formation of the richest petroleum formations, which are associated with the generation of a huge amount of hydrocarbons in the largest oil and gas basins of modern continental margins. Both early and late Cretaceous epochs were marked by several oceanic anoxic events (OAE) of global and regional scale, accompanied by the accumulation of sediments enriched in organic matter, and by significant shifts in the ratios of stable isotopes C, O, and Sr. Various aspects of these events are considered in a huge number of articles published in recent years in major scientific publications. Unfortunately, their role in the formation of oil reservoirs has remained outside the scope of scientific analysis. Meanwhile Cretaceous OAE’s had led to the spreading of black shale and other sediments with high content of organic matter on the floor of Tethys ocean, central part of Atlantic and on the seamounts in the Pacific ocean. Among them only OAE 1a (Selli) and OAE 2 (Bonarelli) are known as more large anoxic events. The first occurred in the middle of Aptian time, the second near the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB). The analysis of the spreading of source rocks in the largest oil-and-gas bearing basins on the continental margins at that time – the Persian Gulf, Maracaibo, Middle and Upper Magdalena river, Putumayo and other basins – showed that episodes of OAE’s had not always found a reflection in the succession of major source rock’s formations. In the Persian Gulf a list of source rocks includes Hanifa, Garau, Gadvan, Kazhdumi, Ahmadi member and Gurpi formations of Cretaceous age. Thus it is certain that OAE’s were only separate parts of more complex history of accumulation of black shale and carbonate deposits with high content of total organic carbon on the continental margins of the Cretaceous time.

oceanic anoxic events, source rocks, the Cretaceous period, basins of continental margins, black shales

Alsharhan A.S., Nairn M.E. Sedimentary basins and petroleum geology of the Middle East. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 1997. 843 p.
Ando A., Huber B., MacLeod K. et al. Black Nose stable isotopic evidence against the Mid-Cenomanian glaciation hypothesis. Geology. 2009. V. 37. Pp. 451-454.
Bordenave M.L., Burwood R. The Albian Kazdhumi formatiom of the Dezful Embayment Iran: one of the most efficient petroleum-generating systems. Ed. Katz B. Petroleum source rocks. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 1995. Pp. 183-207.
Blumenberg M., Wiese F. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany). Biogeoscience. 2012. V. 9. Pp. 4139-4153.
Castillo M., Mann P. Deeply buried, early cretaceous paleokarst terrane, Southern Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Bull. AAPG. 2006. V. 90. No. 4. Pp. 567-579.
Dumitrescu M., Brassell S., Schouten S. et al. Instability in tropical Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the early Aptian. Geology. 2006. V. 34. Pp. 833-836.
Gavrilov Yu.O., Shcherbinina E.A., Golovanova O.V. et al. Carboniferous deposits of the late Cenomanian of the Eastern Caucasus – a regional mapping of the global «anoxic» event of the OAU 2. V sb. statei «Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Kavkaza»: Trudy In-ta geologii DNTs RAN [Geology and Mineral resources of the Caucasus: Collected papers. Proceedings of the Institute of Geology, Dagestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. 2012. Is. 58. Pp. 26-35. (In Russ.)
Goncalvez F., Mora C., Cordoba F. et al. Petroleum generation and migration in the Putumayo basin, Colombia: insights from an organic geochemistry and basin modeling study in the foothills. Marine and petroleum geology. 2002. V.19. Pp. 711-725.
Gertsch B., Adatte Th., Keller G. et al. Middle and Late Cenomanian anoxic events in shallow and deep shelf environments of western Morocco. Sedimentology. 2010. V. 57. Pp. 1430-1462.
Jahren A., Arens N., Sarmiento G. et al. Terrestrial record of methane hydrate dissolution in the Early Cretaceous. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 2001. V. 29. Pp. 159-162.
Jarvis I., Lignum J., Grocke D. et al. Black shale deposition, atmospheric CO2 drawdown and cooling during the Cenoman-Turonian oceanic anoxic event. Paleoceanography. 2011. V. 26. Pp. 1-17.
Jenkyns H., Wilson P. Stratigraphy, paleoceanography and evolution of Cretaceous Pacific guyots: relics from a greenhouse Earth. Amer. J. Science. 1999. V. 299. Pp. 341-392.
Kuypers M., Blokker P., Erbacher J. et al. Massive expansion of marine archaea during a Mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event. Science. 2001. V. 293. Pp. 92-94.
Leckie R.M., Bralower T., Cashman R. Oceanic anoxic events and plankton evolution: biotic response to tectonic forcing during the mid-Cretaceous. Paleoceanography. 2002. V. 17. 13 p.
Lohr S., Kennedy M. Organomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during OAE 2. Biogeoscience. 2014. V. 11. Pp. 4971-4983. Luning S, Kolonic S., Belhadj Z. et al. Integrate depositional model for the Cenomanian-Turobian oceanic-rich strata in North Africa. Earth-Sci. 2004. V. 64. Pp. 51-117.
Marz C., Poulton S., Beckmann B. et al. Redox sensitivity of P cycling during marine black shale formation: Dynamics of sulfidic and anoxic, non-sulfidic bottom waters. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. 2008. V. 72. Pp. 2703-3717.
Mehay S., Keller Cr., Bernasconi St. et al. A volcanic CO2 pulse triggered the Cretaceous Oceanic anoxic event 1a and a biocalcification crises. Geological society of America. 2009. V. 37. N 9. Pp. 819-822.
Moez B., Mohamed S., Taher Z. Radiolarian age constrained of Mid-Cretaceous black shales in North Tunisia. Earth Science. Ed. Dar I.A. 2012. Pp. 648.
Naafs B., Castro J., De Gea G. et al. Gradual and sustained carbon dioxide release during Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a. Nature geosciences. 2016. 8 p.
Navidtalab A., Rahimpour-Bonab H., Nazari-Badii A. et al. Challenges in deep basin sequence stratigraphy: a case study from Early-Middle Cretaceous of SW Zagros. Facies. 2014. V. 60. Pp. 195-215.
Norris R., Bice K., Mango E. et al. Jiggling the tropical thermostat in the Cretaceous hothouse. Geology. 2002. V. 30. Pp. 299-302.
Ohkouchi N., Kuroda J., Okada M. et al. Why Cretaceous black shales have high C/N ratios: implications from SEM-EDX observations for Livello-Bonarelli black shales at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary. Frontier research on Earth evolution. 2003. V. 1. Pp. 239-241.
Pacton M., Schmid T., Gorin G. et al. Cretaceous black shale: a window into microbial life adaptation. Terra Nova. 2011. Pp. 1-7.
Rezaie Kavandudi Z., Rabbani A., Mashhadi Z. Source rock evaluation of the Cretaceous Kazhdumi formation in the Persian Gulf. Energy Sources. 2015. V. 37. Pp. 2293-2301.
Sefidari E., Amini A., Dashti A. Source rock characteristics of Albian Kaxhdumi formation in Zagros region. Arabian Geol. Geoscience. 2015. V. 8. Pp. 8327-8345.
Sinninghe-Damste J., Kuyoers M., Schouten S. et al. The lycopene/C31 n-alkane ratio as a proxy to assess palaeooxicity during sediment deposition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 2003. V. 203. Pp. 215-226.
Soleimani B., Monjezi K., Malaki S. Microfacies, diagenesis and depositional environments of Kazhdumi formation, Dezful embayment, Zagros, NW Iran. Jour. Geol. Geoscience. 2014. V. 3. 12 p.
Strasser A., Caron M., Gjermeni M. The Aptian, Albian and Cenomanian of Rotter Sattel, Forlandes Prealps, Switzerland: a high-resolution record of oceanographic changes. Cretaceous research. 2001. V. 22. Pp. 173-199.
Tiraboschi D., Erba E., Jenkyns H. Origin of rhythmic Albian black shales (Piobbico core, central Italy): Cretaceous nannofossil quantitative and statistical analysis and paleoceanographic reconstructions. Paleoceanography. 2009. V. 6. doi:10.1029/2008PA001670
Wang Ch., Hu X., Huang Y. et al. Cretaceous oceanic red beds as possible consequence of oceanic anoxic events. Sedimentary geology. 2011. V. 235. Pp. 27-37.
Weissert H. Cretaceous towards a history of the global carbon cycle. The International Symposium on the Cretaceous system: Abstracts. Ankara. Turkey. 2013. Pp. 26.
Wendler J., Meyers St., Wendler I. et al. A million-year-scale astronomical control on Late Cretaceous sea-level. Newsletters on Stratigraphy. 2014. 19 p.
Voigt S., Erbacher J., Mutterlose J. et al. The Cenomanian – Turonian of the Wunstorf section (North Germany): global stratigraphic reference section and new orbital time scale for Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Newsletters on Stratigraphy. 2008. V. 43. N 2. Pp. 66-89.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

For citation:

Konyukhov A.I. Oceanic anoxic events of the Cretaceous period and their role in the formation of source rocks in the basins of continental margins. Georesursy = Georesources. 2017. Special issue. Part 1. Pp. 43-55. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18599/grs.19.6